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Астрономы предложили идею, как получить еще более четкие изображения черной дыры

Чуть более месяца назад международная группа астрофизиков проекта Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), в рамках которого ученые объединили несколько радиотелескопов в разных точках планеты для создания огромного виртуального радиоинтерферометра размером с Землю, опубликовала первую в истории фотографию черной дыры. Теперь другая группа ученых, состоящая из астрономов нидерландского Университета Неймегена и специалистов Европейского космического агентства (ЕКА), поставила перед собой цель – получить еще более четкие изображения черной дыры, которые позволят проверить общую теорию относительности Эйнштейна. Исследователи предложили концепт, который, по их мнению, позволит решить эту задачу. Их идея принята к публикации в журнале Astronomy & Astrophysics.

Астрономы предложили идею, как получить еще более четкие изображения черной дыры

Концепт европейских ученых, получивший название Event Horizon Imager (EHI), предполагает размещение на круговой орбите вокруг Земли двух или трех спутников. Исследователи провели компьютерные симуляции, которые показывают, насколько более детализированными можно будет получить снимки черной дыры Стрелец А, которая находится в центре нашей галактики и стала целью наземного виртуального телескопа EHT.

В пять раз более четкие изображения

«Есть множество преимуществ использования спутников вместо стационарных радиотелескопов на Земле, таких, как тот же Event Horizon Telescope (EHT)», — говорит Фрик Рулофс PhD кандидат Университета Неймегена и ведущий автор новой статьи.

«В космосе вы можете проводить наблюдения на более высоких радиочастотах, поскольку на Земле они фильтруются атмосферой планеты. Кроме того, расстояние между телескопами в космосе может быть еще больше. Это позволит нам сделать большой шаг вперед. Мы сможем получить изображения, которые по качеству будут в пять раз выше, чем качество изображений, которые можно получить с помощью EHT», — добавляет ученый.

Возможность получить более четкие изображения черной дыры позволят собрать больше информации, которая пригодится для более точной проверки общей теории относительности Эйнштейна.

«Тот факт, что спутники будут двигаться по орбите вокруг Земли также предоставит нам дополнительные преимущества», — комментирует профессор радиоастрономии Хейно Фальке.

«Благодаря этому вы сможете получить практически идеальные изображения и рассмотреть настоящие детали черной дыры. Если в реальности существуют некоторые несоответствия теории Эйнштейна, мы сможем их увидеть».

По словам исследователей, EHI сможет получить изображения пяти дополнительных черных дыр, которые по размерам меньше, чем те, которые исследует виртуальный наземный телескоп EHT. Речь в последнем случае идет о центральной черной дыре нашей галактики, Стрелец А, а также центральной черной дыре M87 массивной эллиптической галактики Messier 87, расположенной в созвездии Девы.

Астрономы предложили идею, как получить еще более четкие изображения черной дыры

В космосе разрешение EHI будет в пять раз выше, чем у наземного виртуального телескопа EHT. Изображение черных дыр можно будет получить при еще более высоком уровне детализации. На изображении в верхнем левом углу показан снимок черной дыры Стрелец А, каким ее увидел EHT при частоте 230 ГГц. Справа вверху отображена ее компьютерная модель. В левом нижнем углу показана модель Стрельца А при наблюдениях на частоте 690 ГГц. Справа внизу показано изображение компьютерной модели, каким ее может увидеть космический виртуальный телескоп EHI

Технологический вызов

Исследователи смоделировали изображения, которые можно было бы получить при использовании различных технологий визуализации. Для этого они обратились к ранее разработанным моделям поведения плазмы и излучения вокруг черной дыры.

«С научной точки зрения модели выглядят очень многообещающими, однако предстоит преодолеть несколько технологических сложностей, чтобы добиться такого результата в реальности», — комментирует Рулофс.

Для оценки технической возможности осуществления проекта по созданию космического виртуального телескопа EHI астрономы объединили усилия со специалистами Европейского центра космических исследований и технологий (ЭСТЕК), созданного ЕКА.

«Этот концепт требует очень точного расчета положения и скоростей космических спутников. Но мы считаем, что проект действительно осуществим», — комментирует Владимир Кудряшов из радиолаборатории Университета Неймегена, который также сотрудничает с ЭСТЕК.

Специалисты отмечают, что также важно учесть то, как ученые смогут получать собираемые спутниками данные.

«Данные с наземного виртуального телескопа EHT записывались на жесткие диски, а затем с помощью самолета перевозились в центр дешифровки. Такой подход, конечно же, неприменим к космосу», — говорит Кудряшов.

Ученые предлагают для передачи данных использовать лазеры. При этом часть собираемых данных будет обрабатываться непосредственно на борту самих спутников, после чего передаваться на Землю для дальнейшего анализа.

«Подобные технологии в космосе уже используются», — добавляет Кудряшов.

Гибридная система

В своей основе идея специалистов ЕКА и Университета Неймегена предполагает независимую работу виртуального космического телескопа EHI. Однако ученые рассматривают возможность использования и своеобразной гибридной системы, в которой будут объединяться в единую сеть мощности виртуального наземного телескопа EHT и орбитального EHI.

«Использование подобной гибридной системы может обеспечить нам возможность создания динамического изображения черной дыры, а также рассмотреть еще более слабые источники радиоизлучения в прилегающей области объекта», — подытоживает Фальке.

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Источник: hi-news.ru

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