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Может ли солнечная электростанция вырабатывать электричество по ночам?

Электростанции, работающие на основе солнечной энергии, являются, пожалуй, одной из самых перспективных отраслей, занимающихся выработкой экологически чистой энергии. Однако есть у них один весьма существенный недостаток: в облачную погоду или ночью они «простаивают». А можно ли заставить их работать и в темное время суток? Давайте разбираться.

Может ли солнечная электростанция вырабатывать электричество по ночам?

Как энергостанции будут вырабатывать энергию ночью

Как передает редакция издания Phys.org, благодаря совместным усилиям специалистов из Университета Кертин (Австралия), а также компаний United Sun Systems и ITP Thermal был разработан новый тип термальной батареи, который и поможет электростанциям работать на полную мощность даже в условиях ночи.

«Хранение возобновляемой энергии уже давно является камнем преткновения энергетической сферы, но наш прототип тепловой батареи способен хранить и по мере необходимости выделять солнечную энергию в любое время суток», — сказал один из авторов работы профессор Крейг Бакли.

Может ли солнечная электростанция вырабатывать электричество по ночам?

Что такое термальная батарея и как она работает

Термальная батарея может запасать энергию и хранить ее до тех пор, пока, грубо говоря, «энергии солнца не окажется недостаточно». В этот момент ранее накопленная энергия идет на работу электростанции вместо энергии солнца. После того, как солнце снова сможет обеспечивать полноценную работу турбин станции, батарея снова начнет накапливать заряд.

Это интересно: Как рождается энергия Солнца?

На самом деле, идея разработки подобной батареи не нова. На сегодняшний день в солнечных электростанциях уже используются литиевые батареи. Но они применяются лишь в качестве запаса и отдают ее для нужд питаемых объектов также, как и ваш телефон начинает терять заряд после того, как вы отключите его от источника питания. В случае с термальной батареей же все гораздо интереснее.

«В то время, как литиевая батарея хранит электрическую энергию, которая может быть использована для обеспечения электроэнергией, когда солнце не светит, термальная батарея хранит тепло от накопленного солнечного света. Это может быть использовано для работы турбины, которая будет производить электроэнергию. Эта технология позволяет получать до 46 кВт энергии и идеально подходит для удаленно расположенных промышленных предприятий или населенных пунктов.»

Сохранение энергии происходит следующим образом: когда солнечная энергия имеется в избытке, она запасается в топливных элементах на основе газообразного водорода. В тот момент, когда наступает ночь или небо застилается тучами, водород вступает во взаимодействие с ионами металлов. Из-за разницы в температурах между водородом и металлом, происходит реакция с образованием гидрида (то есть соединение металла с водородом), в результате которой выделяется тепло. Именно оно и идет на питание турбины электростанции. После остывания водород и металл разъединяются, позволяя вновь накапливать солнечную энергию.

Таким образом получается, что солнечная энергия просто «запасается» для работы установки и позволяет получать электричество (с минимальными потерями) в темное или пасмурное время суток.

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Источник: hi-news.ru

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