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Спутники и ИИ смогут следить за вредными выбросами каждой фабрики на Земле

Скоро для владельцев фабрик, заводов и электростанций наступят трудные времена. Некоммерческая организация WattTime, занимающаяся технологиями искусственного интеллекта, используя технологии спутниковой визуальной разведки сможет с высокой точностью вести слежение за уровнем загрязнения атмосферы (включая выбросы углекислого газа) каждой фабрики и завода на Земле в режиме реального времени. Более того, вся эта информация будет публиковаться в свободном доступе в Интернете, что повысит прозрачность данных, сообщает Vox.

Спутники и ИИ смогут следить за вредными выбросами каждой фабрики на Земле

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Слабый мониторинг за уровнем выбросов вредных веществ в атмосферу, а также случаи нередкой фальсификации результатов наблюдений ставят под сомнение эффективность принятых правительствами стран меры по снижению загрязнения окружающей среды. Система, разрабатываемая WattTime, обещает эффективно решить эти проблемы.

Компания собирается предоставлять данные мониторинга не только регуляторам и политикам, вся информация будет находиться в свободном доступе и с ней сможет ознакомиться любой желающий. Когда речь идет о защите окружающей среды, ответ общества на беспринципные действия нарушителей может быть более карающим, чем ответ любого регулятора. Имея на руках актуальную и достоверную информацию об уровнях местного загрязнения окружающей среды люди, объединившись, смогут направлять прямые запросы в правительства своих стран для того, чтобы те приняли меры по устранению проблем.

И объединяться в этом вопросе есть ради чего. Согласно последним данным State of Global Air, загрязнение воздуха находится на пятом месте основных факторов, повышающих риск преждевременной смертности среди мирового населения. Ежегодно из-за этого умирает 5 миллионов человек и теряется в общей сложности 147 миллионов лет здоровой жизни. При этом очевидно, что жители стран с наибольшим количеством различных фабрик, заводов и электростанций, страдают от загрязнения воздуха больше остальных. Теперь, по крайней мере, они будут вооружены информацией.

Для мониторинга загрязнений воздуха в режиме реального времени WattTime собирается использовать данные со спутников глобальных систем дистанционного зондирования Земли, вроде той же сети «Copernicus» Европейского союза (самого большого гражданского проекта по наблюдению за Землей) и американской сети Landsat, а также спутниковые данные различных частных компаний. Вся необходимая информация собирается космическими аппаратами с помощью разных датчиков, работающих с различными длинами волн, включая инфракрасный диапазон.

Изображения будут обрабатываться различными алгоритмами искусственного интеллекта, которые смогут определять признаки загрязнения. Компания в прошлом уже успешно продемонстрировала, что значительный объем загрязнений можно отследить с помощью спутников путем выявления обычного дыма. С помощью инфракрасных датчиков можно будет определять тепловые сигнатуры энергодобывающих производств. По словам исполнительного директора WattTime Гэвина Маккормика, датчики, способные напрямую определять выбросы оксида азота (NO2) в атмосферу, в настоящий момент разрабатываются.

Помимо данных о наблюдениях за тепловыми маркерами, дымом и уровнем выбросов оксида азота WattTime будет собирать и в режиме реального времени публиковать данные об уровне выбросов углекислого газа в атмосферу каждой фабрики на Земле. По словам Маккормика, система также сможет собирать информацию о некоторых загрязнителях воды (нитратов и ртути).

За финансированием проекта стоит Google.org – филантропическое крыло компании Google, направленное на реализацию различных благотворительных и других проектов. WattTime стала одним из победителей конкурса AI Impact Challenge, организованный Google, и получила на свой проект грант в размере 1,7 миллиона долларов.

Помимо этого, WattTime объединила усилия с компанией Carbon Tracker, занимающейся анализом финансовой эффективности различных энергодобывающих секторов (например, ее анализ, опубликованный в ноябре прошлого года показал, что 42 процента всех работающих на угле электростанций в мире работают себе в убыток), а также с Институтом мировых ресурсов (ИМР), обладающим самой полной на сегодняшний момент базой данных всех энергодобывающих станций в мире.

Как уже отмечалось выше, WattTime является некоммерческой организацией. В настоящий момент она находится под патронажем Института Роки-Маунтин. Среди последних разработок — система Automated Emissions Reduction (AER). Программа использует данные энергосетей в реальном времени и с помощью технологий машинного обучения определяет в какой момент времени производится «наиболее чистое электричество». Затем эта информация используется для автоматической регулировки энергопотребления в тот или иной момент времени, что в целом позволяет максимально сокращать уровень углеродосодержащих выбросов в атмосферу. Мощность многих видов систем, использующих общие сети энергоснабжения можно изменять с учетом текущей нагрузки. Нагреватели воды, станции зарядки батарей, а также некоторые индустриальные процессы – все они адаптируемы и управляемы. Система AER полностью автоматизирована. Другими словами, она работает сама, не требуя участия пользователя.

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Источник: news-ria.ru

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