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Ученые создали самый мощный сверхпроводящий магнит постоянного тока

Ученые из Национальной лаборатории высокого магнитного поля (MagLab) при Университете штата Флорида (США) создали самый мощный в мире сверхпроводящий магнит. Устройство диаметром не больше сантиметра и размером не больше ролика для туалетной бумаги (не знаю почему, но создатели проводят именно такую аналогию) способно генерировать рекордную напряженность магнитного поля в 45,5 тесла. Это более чем в 20 раз мощнее магнитов больничных аппаратов магнитно-резонансной томографии. Отмечается, что ранее только импульсные магниты, способные поддерживать магнитное поле в течение доли секунды, достигали более высокой интенсивности.

Ученые создали самый мощный сверхпроводящий магнит постоянного тока

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Создателем магнита является инженер MagLab Санъйон Хан. О том, как ему и его команде это удалось, сообщает статья, опубликованная в журнале Nature. По словам специалистов, они использовали новые материалы для сверхпроводника и магнита, чтобы добиться таких показателей.

Ученые создали самый мощный сверхпроводящий магнит постоянного тока

На самом деле исследователи создали сразу два рекордных магнита. Тестовый использует купратные сверхпроводники из сплава на основе ниобия. Он способен генерировать магнитного поля напряженностью 45 тесла и при этом потребляет небольшое количество энергии. По словам ученых, ранее созданные магниты на основе купрата были слишком хрупкими для использования в технологических приложениях, но новые магниты должны выдерживать напряженность поля до 60 тесла.

Из чего сделан самый мощный сверхпроводящий магнит?

Для рекордного магнита, способного создавать поле напряженностью 45,5 тесла, сверхпроводники были выполнены из нового соединения, получившего название REBCO (в его основе используется оксид редкоземельного бария-меди) и способного пропускать в два раза больше тока, по сравнению с другими сверхпроводниками, использовавшимися для создания рекордных магнитов. Благодаря этому новый магнит способен создавать гораздо более сильное магнитное поле.

Современные электромагниты содержат изоляцию между проводящими слоями, которая направляет ток по наиболее эффективному пути. Но это также добавляет вес и объем.

Инновация Хана: сверхпроводящий магнит без изоляции. Помимо более удачного дизайна, такой вариант позволяет защитить магнит от неисправности, так называемого срыва поля. Он может происходить, когда имеющиеся в проводнике повреждения или дефекты блокируют движение тока в назначенное место, вызывая нагрев материала и потерю его сверхпроводящих свойств. При отсутствии изоляции ток в таком случае просто идет другим путем, предотвращая срыв.

Ученые создали самый мощный сверхпроводящий магнит постоянного тока

Отмечается, что создаваемая напряженность поля нового магнита превысила напряженность энергоемких резистивных магнитов, которые не используют сверхпроводники, а также обычных сверхпроводниковых магнитов и гибридных сверхпроводящих резистивных магнитов.

«Тот факт, что слои катушки не изолированы друг от друга означает, что они могут легко и эффективно передавать ток между собой, чтобы тот мог обойти любое препятствие на своем пути», — объясняет соавтор исследования Дэвид Ларбалтье.

Для чего нужны сверхпроводящие магниты?

Подобные сверхпроводящие магниты необходимы для работы целого ряда различных устройств, от МРТ-аппаратов до высокоскоростных транспортных систем и термоядерных реакторов. Ожидается, что сверхпроводящие магниты могут продвинуть исследования в разных научных сферах.

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Источник: news-ria.ru

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