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#видео | ЕКА показало, как плавятся спутники в земной атмосфере

Специалисты Европейского космического агентства (ЕКА) провели эксперимент, призванный продемонстрировать, как околоземные спутники плавятся при входе в земную атмосферу. Для имитации этих условий на земле инженеры использовали плазменную аэродинамическую трубу, в которую поместили один из самых прочных элементов спутника — штангу магнитной системы ориентации. Она состоит из полимерного композитного материала, армированного внешним углеродным волокном, с медными катушками и внутренним кобальтовым сердечником.

#видео | ЕКА показало, как плавятся спутники в земной атмосфере

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В теории, околоземные спутники разрабатываются с тем учетом, чтобы все их элементы сгорали в атмосфере нашей планеты, когда подходит к окончанию их срок эксплуатации. В реальности так происходит не всегда — некоторые части все же могут добраться до поверхности Земли.

Как плавятся спутники?

Поэтому специалисты ЕКА и хотели разобраться в процессе плавления космических обломков во время погружения в атмосферу. Аналогичные условия были воссозданы на площадке Немецкого аэрокосмического центра в Кёльне внутри плазменной аэродинамической трубы. Помещенную в штангу магнитной системы ориентации размером 4 на 10 сантиметров удалось полностью расплавить, нагрев предмет до нескольких тысяч градусов Цельсия.

#видео | ЕКА показало, как плавятся спутники в земной атмосфере

«Такого рода эксперименты представляют заметную ценность, чтобы учитывать эти факторы при проектировании космических аппаратов, чтобы не было неожиданностей и минимизировать вредное воздействие, если не удается спроектировать так, чтобы все сгорело», — прокомментировал результат эксперимента ведущий научный сотрудник Института космических исследований РАН Натан Эйсмонт.

#видео | ЕКА показало, как плавятся спутники в земной атмосфере Штанга магнитной системы ориентации до расплавки…

#видео | ЕКА показало, как плавятся спутники в земной атмосфере и после

По словам главного инженера ЕКА Тьяго Суареса, в целом результаты эксперимента показали правильность расчетов. Однако некоторые части штанги плавились не так, как было запланировано, что может быть связано либо с неправильным производством, либо с неверными математическими расчетами разрушения спутников в атмосфере.

Какие части спутников могут не сгореть в атмосфере?

Специалисты ЕКА отмечают, что некоторые из падающих на землю обломков достаточно велики и могут нанести существенный урон, поэтому предпринимаются попытки свести к минимуму вероятность этих событий.

В качестве примера ЕКА приводит случай, произошедший 1997 году. Тогда всего в 50 метрах от жилого дома на одной из ферм Техаса упал недогоревший в атмосфере топливный бак ступени ракеты, вес которого составлял порядка 250 кг.

#видео | ЕКА показало, как плавятся спутники в земной атмосфере Несгоревший топливный бак ракеты, упавший в Техасе в 1997 году

В ЕКА также отмечают, что помимо магнитных штанг и топливных баков не сгореть в атмосфере Земли и долететь до ее поверхности могут и другие части спутников, например, те же оптические инструменты, маховики гироскопов и приводные механизмы.

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Источник: news-ria.ru

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