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10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Полеты в космос, вне всяких сомнений, очень важны для развития нашей с вами цивилизации. При этом для организации почти всех без исключения космических миссий применяются самые современные технологии. Однако же мало кто задумывался о том, что многие вещи, которые мы используем сегодня, «пришли к нам из космоса». И изначально созданные для полетов на орибиту Земли или на Луну вещи стали чем-то обыденным. Сегодня мы расскажем вам о самых интересных из них.

10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Портативный пылесос

10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Компания из США Black & Decker выпустила первую в истории дрель на батарейках в 1961 году, а к началу программы «Аполлон» по заказу NASA должна была разработать устройство для удобной добычи образцов лунного грунта. Опыт работы над дрелью позволил компании создать на ее основе небольшой пылесос, которым было бы удобно управляться даже одной рукой. Сейчас подобные гаджеты можно найти практически в каждом магазине.

«Молнии» и «липучки»

10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Без этих элементов современную одеждy, кажется, уже невозможно представить. Тем не менее, первая «молния» была запатентована еще в 1914 году. Но распространения она так и не получила. Однако в условиях невесомости космонавтам нужно иметь возможность легко и удобно расстегивать и застегивать элементы одежды. Именно для такой задачи отлично подошли «липучки».

Часы стали точнее

10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Знать точное время критически важно, когда ты находишься в космосе или высаживаешься на Луну. В самом начале космической гонки инженеры NASA значительно улучшили механизмы работы часов, установленных в Центре управления полетами. Если точность хода обычных кварцевых часов составляет 1 минуту в год (то есть за год часы начнут отставать в среднем на 1 минуту), то новая технология позволила сократить этот показатель в несколько раз. После этого технология добралась и до потребителей.

Системы по очистке воды

10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Технология очистки воды на борту космических аппаратов в начале своего пути была настолько продвинутой, что могла без проблем очищать воду от бактерий и даже вирусов. Это была первая система очистки, основанная на ионах серебра. Сегодня эта методика активно используется при производстве питьевой воды, а также для очистки фонатов и бассейнов.

Это интересно: Американские ученые, возможно, решили проблему производства кислорода в космосе

Кроссовки

10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Строго говоря, кроссовки и другую спортивную обувь не изобретали для космических миссий. Однако же технологии для производства обуви для космонавтов чуть позже перекочевали в потребительский сектор, сделав обычную обувь более гибкой, устойчивой к повреждениям и с хорошей системой амортизации при ходьбе.

Огнеупорные материалы

10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Во время тренировки в 1967 году пожар уничтожил аппарат «Аполлон-1», вызвав гибель трех астронавтов, что поставило под угрозу всю программу «Аполлон». Именно тогда аэрокосмическое агентство США задумалось над разработкой огнеупорных материалов. Сегодня их можно встретить буквально везде: от костюмов пожарной охраны до обшивок домов.

Кардиостимуляторы

10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Приборы для людей с аномальным сердечным ритмом появились на свет благодаря прогрессу, достигнутому NASA в миниатюризации микросхем. Если раньше человек с различными нарушениями ритма должен был постоянно наблюдаться у врача, а для восстановления ритма нужно было использовать огромные приборы, то с развитием микросхем появилась возможность создавать более компактные устройства.

У нас появилась «сухая» еда

10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Если мы, проголодавшись, можем сходить в магазин, то у космонавтов такой привелегии нет. Поэтому во время долгих полетов в космос им нужно иметь запас пропитания на несколько недель или даже месяцев. Для этого был разработан процесс лиофилизации — «мягкой сушки», когда вода извлекается из замороженной свежей пищи при невысокой температуре. Для приготовления ее просто нужно развести горячей водой. Звучит знакомо, не правда ли?

Тонкое и теплое одеяло

10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Если обратить внимание на картинку, то на ней вы увидите так называемое «космическое одеяло». Оно чем-то напоминает большой кусок фольги. Изначально изолирующий материал таких одеял применялся для защиты космических модулей и их элементов от перегрева и солнечной радиации. Сегодня «космические одеяла» делают из пластиковой пленки и алюминия и используются они в спасательных операциях для защиты от переохлаждния.

Солнечные батареи

10 повседневных вещей, которые изменились благодаря полетам в космос

Сегодня солнечные батареи являются очень перспективной областью и устанавливаются практически везде: от калкуляторов до крыш домов и электромобилей. При этом первые солнечные элементы питания появились более 50 лет назад, когда возникла необходимость нахождения очень емких элементов питания для энергоснабжения космических станций.

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Источник: hi-news.ru

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