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Шесть космических катаклизмов, которые могли бы уничтожить жизнь на Земле

Большинство людей, если спросить их о самой большой угрозе человеческому существованию, наверное, подумают о ядерной войне, глобальном потеплении или крупномасштабном пандемическом заболевании. Но если предположить, что мы избавились от этих проблем, будем ли мы в безопасности? Жизнь на нашей голубой планетке кажется безопасной, пока мы не знаем, что прячется в глубинах космоса. Ниже вы найдете космические катаклизмы, которые входят в список возможных угроз, готовых сильно навредить человечеству или уничтожить его насовсем. Счастливо почитать!

Шесть космических катаклизмов, которые могли бы уничтожить жизнь на Земле

Высокоэнергетическая вспышка на солнце

Наше солнце не такая уж мирная звездочка, как привыкли считать. Она создает мощные магнитные поля, которые образуют впечатляющие солнечные пятна, по размерам во много раз превышающие Землю. Также оно может извергать поток частиц и излучения — солнечный ветер. Сдерживаемый магнитным полем Земли, этот ветер образует красивое полярное сияние. Но когда он становится мощнее, он может мешать радиосвязи или вызывать перебои в подаче электроэнергии.

Самая мощная магнитная солнечная буря на Земле была в 1859 году. Этот инцидент в Каррингтоне вызвал огромные помехи в сравнительно мелкомасштабном электронном оборудовании. Такие события могли происходить и в прошлом.

Но ведь мы только в последние годы стали полностью зависимы от электронного оборудования. Правда в том, что мы можем серьезно пострадать, если будем недооценивать опасность возможного Каррингтона или даже еще более мощного события. Хотя вспышка на солнце не сможет уничтожить человечество, она предоставит проблем. Без электричества, отопления, кондиционирования воздуха, GPS и Интернета представить нашу жизнь уже нельзя.

Падение астероида

Шесть космических катаклизмов, которые могли бы уничтожить жизнь на Земле

В принципе, мы хорошо знаем о том, насколько опасны могут быть астероиды — в конце концов, один из них положил начало конца динозавров. Последние исследования говорят о том, что нам стоит побеспокоиться: эти крупные космические камни могут представлять серьезную угрозу для нас.

Сегодня мы находимся лишь в начале пути исследования и разработки систем, которые будут защищать нас от небольших астероидов. Но против более крупных и редких космических гостей мы совершенно беспомощны. Несмотря на то, что они необязательно уничтожат Землю или сделают ее непригодной для проживания, они могут уничтожить человечество, вызвав огромные цунами, пожары и другие стихийные действия.

Расширение солнца

Если все предыдущие космические опасности происходят по броску кости, с определенной вероятностью, мы знаем точно, что наше солнце «покончит с собой» через 7,72 миллиарда лет. К этому моменту оно выплюнет свою внешнюю атмосферу и образует планетарную туманность, превратившись в остаток звезды — «белый карлик».

Но человечеству не суждено прочувствовать эти последние этапы. По мере старения Солнца оно будет становиться холоднее и больше. Однажды оно станет звездой-гигантом, которая будет достаточно большой, чтобы достать до Венеры. В этот момент Земля может быть безопасной, но солнце будет создавать мощный солнечный ветер, замедляющий Землю. Через 7,59 миллиарда лет наша планета просто расплавится в атмосфере нашей непомерно раздутой звезды.

Гамма-всплеск неподалеку

Чрезвычайно мощные выбросы энергии — гамма-лучевые всплески — могут быть вызваны бинарной системой звезд (когда две звезды вращаются вокруг общего центра) и сверхновыми (взрывающимися звездами). Эти всплески энергии чрезвычайно мощные, поскольку сосредоточивают свою энергию в узкий пучок, живущий не дольше нескольких секунд или минут. В результате излучение одного такого всплеска может повредить и уничтожить наш озоновый слой, оставив жизнь уязвимой для вредоносного ультрафиолетового излучения солнца.

Астрономы обнаружили звездную систему — WR 104 — которая могла бы вместить такое событие. WR 104 находится в 5200–7500 световых годах от нас, что достаточно далеко, чтобы мы оставались в безопасности. И мы можем только догадываться, когда произойдет такой всплеск. К счастью, есть вероятность того, что пучок энергии по нам не попадет.

Сверхновые поблизости

Вспышки сверхновых, которые происходят, когда звезда достигает конца своей жизни, случаются в среднем один или два раза в каждые 100 лет в нашем Млечном Пути. Вероятнее всего, они рождаются ближе к плотному центру Млечного Пути, а мы находится в двух третьих пути от центра — не так уж и плохо.

Шесть космических катаклизмов, которые могли бы уничтожить жизнь на Земле

Можно ли ожидать вспышки сверхновой поблизости в ближайшем времени? Звезда Бетельгейзе — красный сверхгигант, приближающийся к концу своей жизни — в созвездии Ориона находится всего в 460-650 световых годах от нас. Она может стать сверхновой сейчас или в следующий миллион лет. К счастью, астрономы подсчитали, что сверхновая должна быть по меньшей мере в 50 световых годах от нас, чтобы повредить наш озоновый слой. Поэтому конкретно эта сверхновая не должна создавать причин для беспокойства.

Движущиеся звезды

Между тем, блуждающая звезда, летящая через Млечный Путь, может подойти к нашему солнцу так близко, что будет взаимодействовать с плотным «облаком Оорта» на краю нашей Солнечной системы, где содержится множество комет. Это может привести к дождю комет, который устремится к Земле. Еще один бросок костей.

Солнце тоже движется через Млечный Путь, проходя через более или менее плотные участки межзвездного газа. В настоящее время мы находимся в менее плотном пузыре, созданном сверхновой. Ветер солнца и солнечное магнитное поле образуют пузыреобразную область, окружающую нашу солнечную систему — гелиосферу — которая защищает нас от взаимодействия с межзвездной средой. Когда мы покинем этот участок через 20 000–50 000 лет (согласно нашим текущим наблюдениям и моделям), наша гелиосфера станет менее эффективной и обнажит Землю. Возможно, у нас изменится климат и станет более проблемным для проживания — если не невозможным.

Но жизнь продолжается.

Конец человечества на Земле неизбежен. Но это не значит, что нам нужно забиться под стол и дрожать от страха. Мы никак не сможем его изменить, точно так же и наши жизни имеют конец и начало. Это определяет нас и заставляет задуматься о том, что единственное, что мы можем, это провести время на Земле с пользой. Особенно когда вспоминаем, что Земле нужно очень тонкое равновесие, чтобы поддерживать человечество.

Все перечисленные сценарии разрушения пугают и удивляют одновременно. Вместе с тем они указывают нам на будущее и на смысл нашего существования.

Источник: hi-news.ru

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