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Астрономы: Что-то неизвестное словно пуля пробило дыру внутри Млечного Пути

Ученые Гарвард-Смитсоновского центра астрофизики в растерянности. Что-то «неизвестное, плотное, невидимое через телескопы и состоящее, скорее всего, не из обычной материи словно пуля пронзило и сделало гигантские дыры внутри нашей галактики Млечный Путь». Доказательства этому были представлены на конференции Американского физического общества в Денвере (США) специалистом астрофизиком Анной Бонака.

Астрономы: Что-то неизвестное словно пуля пробило дыру внутри Млечного Пути

Обнаруженные ею отверстия в Млечном Пути расположены в самом длинном звездном потоке GD-1. Они представляют собой группы звезд, движущихся вдоль орбиты галактик. Некогда они были небольшим шаровым скоплением или карликовой галактикой, а теперь разлетаются.

При обычных условиях, отмечает исследовательница, поток должен вытягиваться более или менее в линию с одним разрывом там, где изначально находилось шаровое скопление до того, как звезды начали разлетаться в разных направлениях. Но Бонака продемонстрировала, что у GD-1 имеется второй разрыв. Что интересно, у этого второго разрыва наблюдаются рваные края — словно нечто огромное пробило поток не так давно и утащило за собой часть звезд под действием громадной силы притяжения.

«Мы не можем приписать это явление ни с каким светящимся объектом, который наблюдали до этого. Это нечто намного массивнее звезды. Нечто в миллион раз массивнее нашего Солнца. Звезд такой массы просто нет. Мы не можем этого объяснить. Если бы речь шла о черной дыре, то она должна была бы быть такой же сверхмассивной, как та, что находится в центре нашей галактики», — рассказала Бонака в интервью Live Science.

Ученая считает, что исключать возможность наличия в Млечном Пути второй сверхмассивной черной дыры конечно нельзя. Однако в таком случае мы бы заметили какие-то признаки ее присутствия, например, вспышки или излучение ее аккреционного диска. В то же время, отмечает астрофизик, у большинства крупных галактик наблюдается всего одна сверхмассивная черная дыра в центре.

Другим предположением ученой является большой сгусток темной материи. Однако Бонака отмечает, что объект не обязательно полностью, на 100% состоит из темной материи.

«Возможно, это светящийся объект, который прячется где-то в галактике. Однако это маловероятно, поскольку его размеры, — а речь идет о 10–20 парсеках (от 30 до 65 световых лет) в поперечнике — было бы нелегко скрыть», — добавляет ученая.

На данный момент — это единственное исследование в своем роде, и оно еще не было опубликовано ни в одном научном журнале с именем, но получило одобрение астрофизиков, собравшихся на конференцию.

Работа проводилась с привлечением данных космической обсерватории Gaia Европейского космического агентства, которая занимается картографированием звезд и их движений внутри Млечного Пути. Благодаря этой миссии ученые смогли составить самый полный на текущей момент каталог звезд нашей галактики, в который также попал и звездный поток GD-1.

Свой анализ она подкрепила данными, собранными с помощью Многозеркального Телескопа, расположенного в Аризоне, которые показали, какие звезды движутся в направлении Земли, а какие наоборот, отдаляются. Это помогло ей определить звезды, которые действительно являются частью потока GD-1, в котором и была обнаружена вторая дыра и ранее невиданный регион.

Бонака отмечает, что собирается продолжить работу по поиску неизвестного источника мощнейшей гравитации, пробившей дыру в звездном потоке, однако основной целью ее исследования является составление карты сгустков темной материи, рассеянных по всему Млечному Пути.

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Источник: hi-news.ru

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