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Астрономы продолжают гадать об обитаемости планетарной системы TRAPPIST-1

Пожалуй, одной из самых интересных планетарных систем, открытых за последнее время, является система TRAPPIST-1. Расположенная «всего» в 40 световых годах от Земли, она является домом сразу для семи землеподобных планет, оборачивающихся вокруг маленькой красной карликовой звезды. Астрономы считают, что три планеты системы располагаются в так называемой обитаемой зоне светила. Сразу два новых исследования были направлены на то, чтобы разобраться в потенциале обитаемости этих трех миров. Ученые обратили особое внимание на уровень излучения звезды, воздействующее на эти планеты, а также на приливные силы планет-соседей. Как оказалось, эти два фактора повышают шансы на то, что на трех обсуждаемых планетах возможно существование жизни.

Астрономы продолжают гадать об обитаемости планетарной системы TRAPPIST-1

Одна из странностей этой системы заключается в том, что все семь ее планет, названные от TRAPPIST-1b до -1h, находятся на орбите в непосредственной близости от звезды и друг от друга. Другими словами, они вполне могли бы уместится в пространстве между Меркурием и Солнцем. На первый взгляд может показать, что для жизни такое близкое расположение к звезде будет смертельным, но к счастью, TRAPPIST-1 – относительно холодный красный карлик, поэтому радиус его обитаемой зоны гораздо ниже, чем у того же Солнца.

Проблема же заключается в том, что звезда TRAPPIST-1 очень активна. Она выбрасывает гораздо больше частиц высокой энергии, чем наше Солнце. Это излучение может разрушить сложные молекулы, необходимые для зарождения и развития жизни.

Излучение красного карлика

Одно из исследований было посвящено моделированию движения частиц высоких энергий (протонов) после их выброса звездой TRAPPIST-1. Ученые смоделировали их взаимодействие с магнитным полем светила и обнаружили, что основная масса этих протонов будет бомбардировать четвертую планету системы — TRAPPIST-1e. К сожалению, именно она рассматривается исследователями как наиболее вероятный кандидат на обитаемость.

«Эти частицы должны задерживаться магнитным полем, но если ввести фактор турбулентности, то протоны могут покидать магнитное поле. Направление движения частиц зависит от того, как магнитное поле звезды отклоняется от оси ее вращения. Этот поток частиц может быть в миллион раз интенсивнее, чем тот, что ударяется о магнитное поле нашей планеты», — говорит Фредерико Фрасчетти, ведущий автор исследования.

Наша Земля обладает магнитным полем, которое защищает нас от воздействия этих высокоэнергитических частиц. Ученые предположили, что планеты TRAPPIST-1e также может иметь магнитное поле, правда для эффективной защиты поверхности планетарного объекта ему потребуется в данном случае в 100 раз более сильное магнитное поле, чем обладает наша Земля. А это, говорят ученые, маловероятно. В то же время специалисты не считают, что такое положение дел автоматически исключает возможность существования жизни на этой планете. В рамках других исследований выносилось предположение о том, что некоторые планеты системы TRAPPIST-1 могут быть водными мирами, и их глубокие океаны могут защитить подводную жизнь от воздействия этого мощного излучения.

Астрономы продолжают гадать об обитаемости планетарной системы TRAPPIST-1

Приливной захват

Кроме того, ученые считают, что планеты TRAPPIST-1, вероятно, заперты приливно. С одной стороны, это означает, что одно и то же полушарие каждой планеты всегда обращено к звезде, в то время как вечная ночь окутывает другую сторону.

На Земле Луна поднимает приливы не только в океанах. Приливные силы деформируют сферическую форму мантии и земной коры. В системе TRAPPIST-1 две самые близкие к звезде планеты расположены достаточно близко друг к другу, поэтому ученые предположили, что миры могут вызывать приливы друг на друга, как Луна на Землю. Приливные силы при этом могут быть настолько мощные, что способны поддерживать вулканическую активность на обоих космических телах. Это, в свою очередь, позволяет сохранить атмосферу на обеих планетах.

Исследователи также считают, что шестая планета системы, TRAPPIST-1g, также подвергается приливным силам соседей. Если эта планета является океаническим миром, как предполагалось в других исследованиях, то этот эффект приливных сил также может сохранять температуру воды на планете достаточно высокой, чтобы в ней могла существовать жизнь.

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Источник: hi-news.ru

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