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Белые акулы могут выдержать многое — даже содержание тяжелых металлов в крови

По данным исследования Университета Майами, в крови акул из побережья Южной Африки содержится большое количество тяжелых металлов. Предполагалось, что попавшие в кровь ртуть и мышьяк непременно отразятся на здоровье морских хищников, но никаких негативных последствий обнаружено не было. Помимо обнаружения стойкости акул к тяжелым металлам, исследователи также выяснили, что по анализам их крови можно определять состояние чистоты морской экосистемы в регионах, где они обитают.

Белые акулы могут выдержать многое — даже содержание тяжелых металлов в крови

Образцы крови, использованные в исследовании, были взяты у акул, пойманных у берегов Южной Африки в 2012 году. Поднятые на платформе тяжелые хищники после взятия анализов были выпущены на волю. В новом исследовании ученые провели сканирование на наличие 12 микроэлементов и 14 тяжелых металлов, и в итоге обнаружили содержание большого количества ртути и мышьяка. Примечательно, что на концентрацию не влияли ни пол, ни размер, ни состояние здоровья особей.

Тяжелые металлы, которые опасны для других морских обитателей, оказались безвредными для акул. Ученые предполагают, что у них есть физиологический механизм, который смягчает их вредное воздействие. Металлы могли попасть в кровь хищников только одним путем, после поедания и переваривания более мелких рыб.

Именно поэтому ученые считают, что по анализам крови акул можно определять чистоту морских глубин в разных регионах. Если в ней содержатся вредные вещества, значит, мелкие рыбы просто пересыщены ими, и воде срочно требуется очистка.

Большая белая акула считается одним из самых больших хищников морских глубин — они могут вырастать до 6 метров в длину. При таком большом размере и наличии двух рядов острых зубов ученые считают, что они не особо опасны для людей: статистика показала, что в 2018 году было зафиксировано всего лишь 130 случаев взаимодействия человека с акулой.

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Источник: hi-news.ru

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