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Биологи грозят «Шестым массовым вымиранием» растений и животных

В подготовленном учеными Межправительственной научно-политической платформы по биоразнообразию и экологическим системам (IPBES) докладе на 1,8 страниц, краткая выжимка которого (на 40 страницах) была представлена в понедельник на заседании платформы в штаб-квартире ЮНЕСКО во Франции говорится о том, что под угрозой полного исчезновения находится 1 миллион видов животных и растений на Земле. В новом докладе ученые впервые используют термин «Шестое массовое вымирание». Но на этот раз его причиной называют не саму природу, а деятельность человека.

Биологи грозят «Шестым массовым вымиранием» растений и животных

По оценкам авторов доклада, из 8 миллионов видов растений и животных, включая 5,5 миллиона видов насекомых, до миллиона угрожает вымирание, в том числе в ближайшие десятилетия.

«Деятельность человека угрожает исчезновением большему количеству видов, чем когда-либо, — констатируют авторы.

«По меньшей мере в десятки или в сотни раз более масштабным, чем было в среднем за последние 10 млн лет. В среднем около 1 млн видов уже находятся под угрозой исчезновения, для многих это произойдет в ближайшие десятилетия», — говорится в документе.

Ключевыми факторами, влияющими на биоразнообразие, авторы доклада называют изменения в землепользовании, прямое использование живых организмов (например, охота), изменение климата, загрязнение окружающей среды и распространение инвазивных видов.

По данным исследователей, 75 процентов суши, 40 процентов Мирового океана и 50 процентов речных вод уже «демонстрируют деградацию из-за деятельности человека». Под угрозой находятся более 40 процентов амфибий, 33 процента рифовых кораллов и более трети морских млекопитающих. Данных о насекомых меньше, но, по предварительным оценкам, вымирание угрожает 10 процентам видов. А если тенденция сохранится, к 2190 году на Земле вообще может не остаться насекомых, что коренным образом изменит всю биосферу. В докладе также отмечается, что с XVI века вымерло не менее 680 видов позвоночных. Согласно средним оценкам по всем группам растений и животных вымирание угрожает 25 процентам видов.

Биологи грозят «Шестым массовым вымиранием» растений и животных

Отмечается, что ежегодно человек добывает около 60 миллиардов тонн возобновляемых и невозобновляемых ресурсов, что почти в два раза больше, чем в 1980 году.

Исследователи считают, что неутешительную картину можно попытаться изменить благодаря преобразующим изменениям. Под самими «преобразующими изменениями» имеется в виду полная реорганизация системы жизни человечества в сфере экономики, технологий и социального развития, для чего потребуется изменить существующие ценности и цели.

Напомним, что в прошлом году биологи из Техасского университета в Остине подсчитали, сколько при текущих темпах вымирания потребуется природе для восстановления биологического разнообразия.

Обсудить новость можно в нашем Telegram-чате.

Источник: hi-news.ru

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