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Найдено лекарство от болезни, которой страдал Стивен Хокинг

Вклад Стивена Хокинга в науку сложно недооценить, как и его рвение к жизни. Как известно, знаменитый ученый страдал от плохо поддающегося терапии заболевания под названием «боковой амиотрофический склероз», который в конечном итоге и стал причиной гибели Стивена. При этом болезнь ежегодно уносит множество жизней и, вполне возможно, группа исследователей из Института Вейцмана (Израиль) обнаружила, как можно вылечить тяжелый недуг. По крайне мере, предварительные данные говорят именно об этом.

Найдено лекарство от болезни, которой страдал Стивен Хокинг

Что такое боковой амиотрофический склероз?

Боковой амиотрофический склероз (сокращенно БАС) — это медленно развивающееся заболевание, которое характеризуется постепенным поражением двигательных отделов как головного мозга, так и спинного мозга. В результате этого у человека постепенно развиваются параличи, а затем и атрофия мышц. Проявления заболевания постепенно «нарастают». И, если по началу отказывают мышцы конечностей, то со временем начинают плохо работать и другие виды мускулатуры. В результате у пациента, страдающего БАС, смерть наступает от инфекций дыхательных путей или от отказа дыхательной мускулатуры. Как правило, пациенты с БАС живут не более 3-5 лет с момента выявления заболевания.

Но в редких случаях состояние пациентов может стабилизироваться и течение болезни замедляется или останавливается вовсе. Именно это и позволило Стивену Хокингу прожить долгую жизнь. Другой показательный пример — американский рок-музыкант Джейсон Беккер, который живет с БАС с 1989 года и по сей день.

От чего возникает боковой амиотрофический склероз

Точные причины на сегодняшний день остаются не ясны. Известно, что существуют как наследственные, так и приобретенные формы заболевания, однако новые данные говорят о том, что за развитие болезни может отвечать состояние желудочно-кишечного тракта. Кажется, что между ЖКТ и нервной системой нет никакой связи. Но это лишь на первый взгляд, утверждают ученые из Израиля.

Группа исследователей из Института Вейцмана в ходе изучения популяции грызунов, пораженных одной из форм БАС, выяснила, что мыши с предрасположенностью к болезни чувствовали себя намного хуже, когда микрофлора их кишечника была практически уничтожена антибиотиками. У мышей с почти уничтоженной микрофлорой симптомы амиотрофического склероза проявлялись быстрее, чем у грызунов с нормальным состоянием желудочно-кишечного тракта.

Это интересно: Десять предсказаний Хокинга, которые он оставил в книге после своей смерти.

После этого ученые проанализировали бактериальный состав желудка и кишечника здоровых мышей и мышей с предрасположенностью к БАС и вычислили 11 наиболее распространенных штаммов бактерий, которые присутствовали в каждой группе. После этого они установили, что бактерия Akkermansia muciniphila выделяла очень много вещества под названием никотинамид. В этом не было бы ничего ничего не обычного, но дело в том, что никотинамид значительно замедляет течение болезни и улучшает работу центральной нервной системы.

Найдено лекарство от болезни, которой страдал Стивен Хокинг

На этом ученые не остановились и изучили состояние микрофлоры кишечника 37 пациентов с БАС. Они обнаружили, что у всех пациентов был низкий уровень никотинамида в крови. Более того, когда эксперты ввели мышам, страдающим от БАС никотинамид, их состояние значительно улучшилось.

Лекарство от бокового амиотрофического склероза найдено?

Это очень сложный вопрос. С одной стороны разработанный учеными из Израиля препарат работает. И это подтверждают данные, полученные в ходе исследований. С другой же стороны полноценного исследования на людях еще не было. К тому же, нельзя исключать и наличия отдаленных побочных эффектов от препарата в будущем. Сами ученые также предупреждают, что результаты их работы не стоит воспринимать как «сигнал к действию». Однако если дальнейише испытания увенчаются успехом, готовый препарат можно будет ожидать на рынке уже через несколько лет.

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Источник: hi-news.ru

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