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Рождены первые в истории макаки-резусы из спермы в замороженных яичках

Процедура, которая включает удаление и замораживание незрелой ткани яичка с последующей ее имплантацией, привела к первому рождению живой здоровой обезьяны. Эта техника теоретически может помочь мальчикам допубертатного периода, которым предстоит лечение рака: 30% из них становятся бесплодными из-за резкого воздействия химиотерапии и облучения. В настоящее время у этих мальчиков нет выбора, который мог бы позволить им гарантировать биологических детей в будущем.

Рождены первые в истории макаки-резусы из спермы в замороженных яичках

Врачи могут замораживать сперму взрослых пациентов мужского пола, но мальчики начинают производить зрелые половые клетки только по достижении половой зрелости. В этот момент гормональные изменения в организме повышают уровень тестостерона, стимулируя развитие стволовых клеток в яичках в сперму. Химиотерапия и лучевая терапия могут истощить эти стволовые клетки, что приводит к низкому уровню сперматозоидов и бесплодию.

Можно ли заморозить сперму в яичках?

В новом исследовании ученые из Медицинской школы Унвиерситета Питтсбурга и его коллеги хирургическим путем удалили и заморозили ткань яичка у пяти юных макак-резусов, которые были слишком молоды, чтобы производить сперму. Затем макак кастрировали, чтобы убедиться, что они стерильны. Когда обезьяны достигли половой зрелости, замороженные ткани разморозили и пересадили под мошонку того же животного, у которого они были взяты первоначально.

Спустя 8-12 месяцев ученые собрали ткани с участка трансплантации и извлекли из него сперму в лаборатории. В ткани вырабатывалось достаточно спермы, чтобы оплодотворить 138 яйцеклеток. Из них только 16 превратились в эмбрионы, пригодные для имплантации. Исследователи перенесли 11 из этих эмбрионов в самок макак, что привело к одной беременности и последующим живым родам. Результаты работы были опубликованы в Science.

«В начале эксперимента мы пересадили ткани с нулевой спермой, а когда собрали трансплантаты, они производили миллионы и миллионы сперматозоидов», говорит Кайл Орвиг, старший автор исследования и профессор акушерства, гинекологии и репродуктологии в Университете Питтсбурга. «Мы уверены, что если то же самое произойдет с тканями человека, у нас будет более чем достаточно сперматозоидов, чтобы оплодотворить яйцеклетку и зачать».

Что касается низкой урожайности эмбрионов, Орвиг говорит, что возможно процедура повлияла на качество спермы, а возможно и другие факторы, такие как качество яичка и время размножения. Обычно макаки размножаются с октября по май. Первые два эксперимента, которые провел Орвиг и его команда, были в конце и начале сезона размножения, и ни одна попытка не привела к беременности. Третья попытка в ноябре 2017 года привела к рождению здоровой самки обезьяны в апреле прошлого года.

В очередной раз эксперименты на животных дают шанс на более здоровую и полную жизнь человека. Согласны с таким подходом? Расскажите в нашем чате.

Источник: hi-news.ru

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