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У шерстистых мамонтов и неандертальцев могут быть общие генетические черты

Новое исследование Тель-Авивского университета предполагает, что генетические профили двух вымерших млекопитающих с африканским происхождением — шерстистых мамонтов, похожих на слонов, которые появились на арктическом полуострове Евразии около 600 000 лет назад, и неандертальцев, умелых первых людей, которые появились в Европе около 400 000 лет назад — имеют общие молекулярные свойства адаптации к холодной среде.

У шерстистых мамонтов и неандертальцев могут быть общие генетические черты

Что общего у мамонтов и неандертальцев?

Исследование связывает отношения слонов и людей в эпоху плейстоцена с их взаимной экологией и общей средой обитания, а также другие возможные взаимодействия между двумя этими видами. Исследование было проведено профессором Раном Баркаем и Мейдадом Кислевым из отдела археологии и древних ближневосточных культур ТАУ и опубликовано 8 апреля в Human Biology.

«Неандертальцы и мамонты жили вместе в Европе во время ледникового периода. Имеющиеся данные говорят о том, что неандертальцы охотились на мамонтов и ели их в течение десятков тысяч лет и фактически были физически зависимы от калорий, извлекаемых из мамонтов, для успешной адаптации», говорит профессор Баркай. «Само существование неандертальцев зависело от мамонтов».

«Говорят, ты — это то, что ты ешь. Это было особенно верно для неандертальцев; они ели мамонтов и при этом, по всей видимости, были похожи на мамонтов генетически».

Чтобы оценить степень сходства между генетическими компонентами мамонта и неандертальца, археологи рассмотрели три тематических исследования соответствующих вариантов генов и аллелей — альтернативных форм гена, которые возникают в результате мутации и обнаруживаются в одном и том же месте хромосомы — ассоциирующихся с адаптацией к холодному климату.

Первое исследование выявило взаимное появление гена LEPR, связанного с термогенезом и накоплением жировой ткани и жира в организме. Во втором исследовании были задействованы гены, связанные с активностью белка кератина у обоих видов. Третье исследование было посвящено вариантам пигментации кожи и волос в генах MC1R и SLC7A11.

«Наши наблюдения показывают вероятность сходства между многочисленными молекулярными вариантами, которые привели к сходным адаптированным к холоду эпигенетическим признакам двух видов, оба из которых произошли в Евразии от африканского предка», объясняет Киселев. «Эти замечательные результаты предлагают доказательства в пользу природы конвергентной эволюции через молекулярное сходство, в котором присутствуют сходства в генетических вариантах между адаптированными видами».

«Мы полагаем, что эти типы связей могут быть полезны для будущих эволюционных исследований. Они особенно интересны, когда в них участвуют другим млекопитающие с большим мозгом, с другим периодом жизни, сложным социальным поведением».

Согласно исследованию, оба вида произошли от предков, которые прибыли в Европу из Африки и приспособились к условиям жизни в ледниковом периоде в Европе. Эти виды также вымерли практически в одно время.

«Теперь можно попытаться ответить на вопрос, который ранее никто не задавал: есть ли генетическое сходство между путями эволюционной адаптации у неандертальцев и мамонтов? Ответ, кажется, да. Одна только эта идея открывает бесконечные возможности для новых исследований в области эволюции, археологии и других дисциплин».

Если неандертальцы похожи на мамонтов, на кого похожи современные люди? Расскажите  в нашем чате в Телеграме.

Источник: hi-news.ru

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